Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
The three components which have improved survival in cancer are:
Prevention – by reduction of risk factors like tobacco and alcohol consumption
Early diagnosis – screening of common cancers and comprehensive diagnosis and staging
Treatment – multi modality management by discussion in tumor board and treatment in a comprehensive cancer centre
Lump in breast and axilla associated with or without ulceration or bloody nipple discharge.
Bleeding per vagina.
Bleeding after sexual intercourse.
Persistent cough, breathlessness, blood in the sputum, hoarseness of voice.
Head and neck cancer
Non-healing ulcer or growth, lump in the neck.
Persistent headache, vomiting, loss of consciousness, double vision.
Lump in the neck.
Painful swallowing predominantly with solid food, weight loss.
Vomiting, dyspepsia, weight loss.
Colon & rectal cancer
Bleeding per rectum, alteration of bowel habits.
Jaundice, pain and mass in right upper abdomen.
Non-healing ulcer or growth, mole with sudden increase in size or irregular border, induration, or pain.
Blood in urine, abdominal lump.
Blood in urine.
Urgency, hesitancy and frequency while passing urine, bony pain.
Swelling of testis, back pain, dyspnoea.
Pain and swelling of bones.
Bleeding manifestations including bleeding gums, bleeding from nose, blood in vomitus, blood in sputum, blood stained urine, black coloured stools, fever, lump in neck, axilla, or groin, lump in upper abdomen.